Different Aspects of Bipolar Disorder Bipolar I disorder (manic or mixed episodes) is a classic bipolar disorder characterized by at least one manic or mixed episode. Interestingly, major depressive episodes are not required to diagnose bipolar I disorder, but they are almost always present and tend to be more common than manic episodes. This form of bipolar disorder requires a manic or depressive episode that doctors cannot classify as unipolar depression. Some people with bipolar disorder develop “rapid cycles,” where they experience four or more episodes of mania or depression in 12 months.
A person with bipolar disorder will go through episodes of mania (high) and at other times experience episodes of depression (low). Everyone goes through ups and downs in life, but the term “bipolar” is used to describe those who oscillate back and forth to the extreme.
There is a risk that antidepressants may exacerbate bipolar disorder by causing mania or hypomania, causing rapid mood swings, or interfering with other mood-stabilizing drugs. The risk of suicide is even higher in people with bipolar disorder who have frequent depressive episodes, mixed episodes, a history of alcohol or drug abuse, a family history of suicide, or an early onset of illness.
In adolescents, bipolar disorder can sometimes be mistaken for illnesses such as schizophrenia and post-traumatic stress disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and other depressive disorders. Because children and adolescents with bipolar disorder typically do not exhibit the behaviours that adults with bipolar disorder do, a mental health professional monitors the adolescent’s behaviour closely before making a diagnosis.
Bipolar disorder can be confused with unipolar depression because people with bipolar disorder often have depressive symptoms rather than manic symptoms. It’s no coincidence that bipolar disorder is difficult to identify, or that bipolar disorder is often confused with unipolar depression, as societies are known (and even predictable) to be dynamic, productive, and creative.
There are no absolute values in assessing the symptoms and naming of bipolar disorder (formerly known as manic-depressive psychosis) and many subsets of bipolar disorder. The most recent version of the DSM, DSM-5, lists bipolar and related disorders as a separate class of disorders. This category includes bipolar I disorder bipolar II disorder and cyclothymic disorder.
In some people with cyclothymic disorder, cyclothymic disorder results in a full-blown mixed or depressive episode, which usually forces doctors to update the diagnosis to bipolar I or II. Bipolar II disorder is characterized by symptoms of hypomania and depression that last two years or more (one year in children) but are not severe enough to meet the diagnostic criteria for a hypomanic or depressive episode. To be diagnosed with bipolar II disorder, a person must have at least one cycle of hypomania and depression.
Nassir Ghaemi suggests that this category is also used for people with recurrent major depression (but without overt hypomania), who also experience manic or hypomanic periods while using antidepressants alone, or who have family members diagnosed with bipolar disorder. According to S. Nassir Gami, MD, associate professor of psychiatry and public health at Emory University, one of the main reasons bipolar disorder can be difficult to diagnose is that most people don’t tell their doctors about mania. but their depression.
Here’s how to recognize the signs and symptoms and get help for mania, hypomania, and bipolar depression. Despite many similarities, some symptoms are more common in bipolar depression than in normal depression. Interestingly, gene expression and neuroimaging studies of people with schizophrenia and major depression also show similar results, indicating that mood disorders and schizophrenia may share some common biological underpinnings, possibly related to psychosis.
For example, studies comparing certain regions of the post-mortem brain tissue of people with bipolar disorder with those of control subjects have consistently shown that expression levels of genes associated with oligodendrocyte myelin appear to be reduced in the brain tissue of people with bipolar disorder. bipolar disorder. Since several studies show that patients with bipolar disorder exhibit milder forms of cognitive dysfunction than those with schizophrenia (7), patients with schizophrenia are expected to have more widespread and severe neurological involvement than patients with bipolar disorder. Indeed, another
major advance in bipolar disorder research has been the discovery that a dominant-negative mutation in the CLOCK gene, which normally promotes circadian periodicity in humans, induces manic behaviour in mice , including hyperactivity, reduced sleep, reduced anxiety, and increased arousal. reaction to cocaine.
Unlike normal mood swings, mood swings in bipolar disorder are so intense that they can interfere with your work or school performance, damage your relationships, and interfere with your ability to function in daily life. Both phases of bipolar disorder can be very dangerous; treatment can help manage this condition. Doctors must rule out other disorders such as schizophrenia and delusional disorder.
Psychotic dimensions of bipolar mania are measured with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA (performed on the number of delusional responses) showed a significant difference between schizophrenia, bipolar patients and controls in the field test [H(2)=31.59, p<0.001] , in the noise test [H(2) = 29.68, p < 0.001], and by the sum of the period scores [H(2) = 33.30, p < 0.001]. Although the first bipolar GWAS used a much smaller sample size than subsequent attempts, including an initial sample of 461 bipolar patients from the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) consortium and a subsequent sample of 563 patients collected in Germany. However, interesting observations need to be followed up in the larger sample described above.
The bipolar classifications in this article are broadly paraphrased from the DSM-IV – Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition published by the American Psychiatric Association, research from the National Institute of Mental Health, and interviews with leading bipolar experts.